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PIAB has given our projects process consistency and generated great reporting whilst being easy to use. A quick introduction to what PROJECT in a box is all about and what our customers tell us them get from using our products and services. Copland is an operating system developed by Apple for Macintosh computers between and but never commercially released. It was intended to be released as System 8, and later, "Mac OS 8", a modern successor to the ageing System 7. Copland introduced protected memory , preemptive multitasking , and a number of new underlying operating system features, while retaining compatibility with existing Mac applications.
Copland's tentatively planned successor, codenamed Gershwin , was intended to add more advanced features such as application-level multithreading. Development officially began in March Over the next several years, previews of Copland garnered much press, introducing the Mac audience to basic concepts of modern operating system design such as object orientation, crash-proofing, and multitasking.
In May , Gil Amelio stated that Copland was the primary focus of the company, aiming for a late-year release. Internally, however, the development effort was beset with problems due to dysfunctional corporate personnel and project management. Development milestones and developer release dates were repeatedly missed. Ellen Hancock was hired to get the project back on track, but quickly concluded it would never ship.
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In August , it was announced that Copland was cancelled and Apple would look outside the company for a new operating system. Mac OS X became Apple's next-generation operating system with its release in All of these releases bear some incremental functional or cosmetic influence from Copland. The Copland development effort is associated with empire-building , feature creep , and project death march. The pre-history of Copland begins with an understanding of the Mac OS legacy, and its architectural problems to be solved.
Launched in , the Macintosh and its operating system were designed from the beginning as a single-user, single-tasking system, which allowed the hardware development to be greatly simplified. But this design also led to several problems for future expansion. By assuming only one program would be running at a time, the engineers were able to ignore the concept of reentrancy ; reentrancy is the ability for a program or code library to be stopped at any point, asked to do something else, and then return to the original task.
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In the case of QuickDraw for example, this means the system can store state information internally, like the current location of the window or the line style, knowing it would only change under control of the running program. Taking this one step further, the engineers left most of this state inside the application rather than in QuickDraw, thus eliminating the need to copy this data between the application and library.
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QuickDraw found this data by looking at known locations within the applications. This concept of sharing memory is a significant source of problems and crashes. If an application program writes incorrect data into these shared locations, it could cause QuickDraw to crash, thereby causing the computer to crash.
Likewise, any problem in QuickDraw could cause it to overwrite data in the application, once again leading to crashes. In the case of a single-application operating system this was not a fatal limitation, because in that case a problem in either would require the application, or computer, to be restarted anyway.
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The other main issue was that early Macs lack a memory management unit MMU , which precludes the possibility of several fundamental modern features. An MMU provides memory protection to ensure that programs cannot accidentally overwrite other program's memory, and provisions shared memory that allows data to be easily passed among libraries. Lacking shared memory, the API was instead written so the operating system and application shares all memory, which is what allows QuickDraw to examine the application's memory for settings like the line drawing mode or color.
These limitations meant that supporting the multitasking of more than one program at a time would be difficult, without rewriting all of this operating system and application code. Yet doing so would mean the system would run unacceptably slow on existing hardware. Instead, Apple adopted a system known as MultiFinder in , which keeps the running application in control of the computer, as before, but allows an application to be rapidly switched to another, normally simply by clicking on its window. Programs that are not in the foreground are periodically given short bits of time to run, but as before, the entire process is controlled by the applications, not the operating system.
Because the operating system and applications all share a single memory space, it is possible for a bug in any one of them to corrupt the entire operating system, and crash the machine. Under MultiFinder, any crash will crash all the other running programs as well. Running multiple applications potentially increases the chances of a crash, making the system potentially more fragile.
Adding greatly to the severity of the problem, is the system used to add functionality to the operating system itself, which relies on a patching mechanism known as CDEVs and INITs , commonly known as Control Panels and Extensions. Third party developers also make use of this mechanism to add features, including screensavers and a hierarchical Apple menu. Some of these third-party control panels became almost universal, like the popular After Dark screensaver package.
Copland was designed to consist of the Mac OS on top of a microkernel named Nukernel , which would handle basic tasks such as application startup and memory management, leaving all other tasks to a series of semi-special programs known as servers. For instance, networking and file services would not be provided by the kernel itself, but by servers that would be sent requests though interapplication communications. Application services are offered through a single program known officially as the Cooperative Macintosh Toolbox environment,  but are universally referred to as the Blue Box.
The Blue Box encapsulates an existing System 7 operating system inside a single process and address space. Mac programs run inside the Blue Box much as they do under System 7,  as cooperative tasks that use the non- reentrant Toolbox calls. A worst-case scenario is that an application in the Blue Box crashes, taking down the entire Blue Box instance with it. This does not result in the system as a whole going down, however, and the Blue Box can be restarted. New applications written with Copland in mind, are able to directly communicate with the system servers and thereby gain many advantages in terms of performance and scalability.
They can also communicate with the kernel to launch separate applications or threads, which run as separate processes in protected memory , as in most modern operating systems. These separate applications cannot use non-reentrant calls like QuickDraw, however, and thus could have no user interface.
Apple suggested that larger programs could place their user interface in a normal Macintosh application, which would then start "worker threads" externally. Another key feature of Copland is that it is completely PowerPC native. System 7 had been ported to the PowerPC PPC with great success; large portions of the system run as PPC code—including both high-level functionality, such as the majority of the user interface "toolbox" managers, and low-level functionality, such as interrupt management.
There is enough 68k code left in the system to be run in emulation, and especially user applications, however that the operating system must map some data between the two environments. Copland is also based on the then-recently defined Common Hardware Reference Platform , or CHRP, which standardized the Mac hardware to the point where it could be built by different companies and can run other operating systems Solaris and AIX were two of many mentioned. This was a common theme at the time; many companies were forming groups to define standardized platforms to offer an alternative to the " Wintel " platform that was rapidly becoming dominant — examples include 88open , Advanced Computing Environment , and the AIM alliance.
The challenge in Copland would be getting all of this functionality to fit into an ordinary Mac. System 7. Copland runs what was essentially a complete copy of System 7. In March , [a] technical middle managers at Apple held an offsite meeting to plan the future course of Mac OS development. The Blue team delivered what became known as System 7 on May 13, , but the Pink team suffered from second-system effect and its release date continued to slip into the indefinite future. Some of the reason for this can be traced to problems that would become widespread at Apple, as time went on; as Pink became delayed and its engineers moved to Blue instead.
Management ignored these sorts of technical development issues, leading to continual problems delivering working products. Features that were originally part of Red, were folded into Pink, and the Red project also known as "Raptor"  was eventually canceled.
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This problem was also common at Apple during this period; in order to chase the "next big thing", middle managers would add new features to their projects with little oversight, leading to enormous problems with feature creep. In the case of Pink, development eventually slowed to the point the project appeared moribund.
Though the system was not fully functional, it resembled System 7 running on a PC. IBM was extremely interested, and over the next few months, the two companies formed an alliance to further development of the system. These efforts became public in early , under the new name " Taligent ". The only way to do that is to work with another major player.
Infighting at the new joint company was legendary, and the problems with Pink within Apple soon appeared to be minor in comparison. This saw little interest and the project disappeared from IBM's catalogs within months. While Taligent efforts continued, very little work addressing the structure of the original OS was carried out. Several new projects started during this time, notably the Star Trek project , a port of System 7 and its basic applications to Intel-compatible x86 machines, which reached internal demo status.